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Reflections on the Use of Heritage Charters and Conventions

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt watches as U.S. Department of Agriculture secretary Henry A. Wallace signs the Roerich Pact on behalf of the United States in April 1935. The pact—one of the earliest international agreements addressing cultural heritage—affirms that monuments, museums, and scientific, artistic, educational, and cultural institutions and their personnel are to be considered neutral in times of war, and are to be accorded respect and protection in peacetime. Photo: Nicholas Roerich Museum, New York.