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The Getty Research Institute Announces 2000-2001 Getty Scholars

Scholars and Artists Will Explore Theme of Reproductions and Originals

September 20, 2000

Los Angeles--The Getty Research Institute announces the selection of 12 Getty Scholars who will be in residence at the Getty Center beginning in September 2000. Each year the Research Institute brings together outstanding scholars and artists from around the world to work on projects related to a particular theme. In 2000-01 the theme is Reproductions and Originals. Scholars will examine the relationship between the study of art and technologies of reproduction--from drawings, prints, and casts to photographs and digital images.

"The exclusive veneration of the original or unique object at the expense of replicas and reproductions is something of a modern invention," says Thomas Crow, who assumed his new position as director of the Research Institute in July. " It contradicts a great deal of the actual practice of art and was of little consequence in many highly sophisticated artistic cultures. We have drawn an exceptionally exciting group of scholars to the GRI who are exploring the complexities of this issue. Their topics cover both traditional and modern art and link Asia with the West. I'm looking forward to a terrifically productive year with a number of special events that will convey our work to a larger audience."

This year's group of scholars includes artist Sherrie Levine; filmmaker and media artist Péter Forgács; dramaturge Dorinne Kondo (who is also director of Asian American Studies at the University of Southern California); art historians Anne Wagner, Whitney Davis, Lothar Ledderose, and Ingrid Rowland; and historian Pamela Smith.

Joining the Getty Scholars at the Research Institute during the academic year of 2000-2001 will be six predoctoral and postdoctoral Fellows, as well as Visiting Scholars who will be in residence for shorter periods of time. For the first time since the scholar program began in 1985, Getty Scholars, Fellows, and Visiting Scholars have been awarded residential grants based on an open application process. For more information, visit

Getty Scholars

September 2000-June 2001

Malcolm Baker is deputy head of research, Victoria and Albert Museum, London. He has co-authored Roubiliac and the Eighteenth-Century Monument: Sculpture as Theatre (1995) and A Grand Design: The Art of the Victoria and Albert Museum (1997) and has recently completed Figured in Marble: The Making and Viewing of Eighteenth-Century Sculpture (2000). His work at the Getty will explore questions of sculptural reproductions, multiple reproductions of sculpture in prints and engravings, and the role and function of sculptural portraiture. His project is titled Sculptural Reproductions and Reproductions of Sculpture: The Bust and the Print.

Mario Carpo is associate professor at the École d'Architecture de Saint-Étienne, France. He has written extensively on architectural theories and reproductive technologies. His recent publications include L'architettura nell'età della stampa. Oralità, scrittura, libro stampato e riproduzione meccanica dell'immagine nella storia delle teorie architettoniche (1998) and an edition of Leon Battista Alberti, Descriptio Urbis Romae (2000). His current project examines the role of reproductions in the transmission of architectural knowledge--past and present--and is titled How Do You Imitate a Building That You Have Never Seen? Architecture, Archetypes, Reproductions, and Reproductive Technologies.

Whitney Davis is John Evans Professor of Art History at Northwestern University. His publications include Masking the Blow: The Scene of Representation in Late Prehistoric Egyptian Art (1992), Drawing the Dream of the Wolves: Homosexuality, Interpretation, and Freud's "Wolf Man" (1995), and Replications: Archaeology, Art History, Psychoanalysis (1996). At the Research Institute he will investigate the reproduction and circulation of homoerotic images in the visual arts from the era of Winkelmann to the era of Freud in a project titled The Transcendence of Imitation: Male Homoeroticism and the Visual Arts, 1750-1920.

Péter Forgács is a history filmmaker and media artist from Budapest, Hungary. His films include Wittgenstein Tractatus (1992), The Maelstrom (1997), The Danube Exodus (1998), and Angelos' Film (1999). He is currently working on the project Rereading Home Movies: Cinematography and Private History, which investigates forms of remembrance and recollection in private films and the relationship of photography and cinematography to the original objects which they reproduce.

Dorinne K. Kondo is professor of anthropology and American studies and ethnicity and director of Asian American studies at the University of Southern California. She has acted as dramaturge for three works by Anna Deavere Smith and is author of two books: Crafting Selves: Power, Gender, and Discourses of Identity in a Japanese Workplace (1990) and About Face: Performing Race in Fashion and Theater (1997). Her project at the Getty, titled (Re)Visions of Race: Mimesis, Identity, and Difference in Contemporary Performance, will investigate the problem of racialization and how notions of "originary" identity are themselves products of reproduction, appropriation, citation, and performance of "Others."

Lothar Ledderose is professor of East Asian art history, Universität Heidelberg. He has published extensively on Chinese calligraphy, painting, and terra-cotta sculpture. Recent works include Chinese Calligraphy and Social Function (1986), Orchideen und Felsen: chinesische Bilder im Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst Berlin (1998), and Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art (2000). At the Research Institute he will work on a project titled Reproductions for the Next World Age: The Stone Library of Buddhist Sutras at the Yunjusi, China.

Sherrie Levine is an artist who lives and works in New York and New Mexico. She is renowned for her appropriative methods, reproducing famous works by male artists (Weston, Blossfeldt, Malevich, Schiele, Klein, Kirchner, Man Ray, Duchamp, Evans) and decontextualizing them in order to urge the viewer "beyond dogmatism, beyond doctrine, beyond ideology, beyond authority." She has been shown in galleries and museums throughout North America, Europe, and Japan. At the Getty, she will work on a collaborative sculpture project with artist Joost van Oss.

Partha Mitter is professor of art history at the University of Sussex. His publications include Much Maligned Monsters: A History of European Reactions to Indian Art (1977) and Art and Nationalism in Colonial India, 1850-1922: Occidental Orientations (1994). His current work focuses on modern art, Indian artists and national identity. At the Research Institute, he will investigate the changing nature of visual imagery in India under the impact of Western naturalism and the art of mechanical reproduction with a project titled The Role of Reproductions in the Work of Colonial Artists in India (1850-1947).

Ingrid D. Rowland is associate professor in the department of art history, University of Chicago. Her publications include The Culture of the High Renaissance: Ancients and Moderns in Sixteenth-Century Rome (1998), a translation of Vitruvius Pollio's Ten Books on Architecture (1999), and the recent The Ecstatic Journey: Athanasius Kircher Baroque Rome (2000). Her project at the Research Institute, The Scarith of Scornello: An Etruscan Fraud in the Age of Galileo, will investigate a 17th-century forgery of Etruscan documents.

Pamela H. Smith is associate professor of history at Pomona College and director of European Studies, Claremont Graduate University. Her publications include The Business of Alchemy: Science and Culture in the Holy Roman Empire (1994) and the forthcoming edited volume (with Paula Findlen) Commerce and the Representation of Nature in Early Modern Europe (2001). She is currently working on a project titled The Body of the Artisan: Nature, Art and Science in Early Modern Europe, which examines the artisans' role in the understanding and representation of the natural world.

Anne M. Wagner is professor of modern art, University of California, Berkeley. She is the author of numerous publications, including Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux: Sculptor of the Second Empire (1986) and Three Artists (Three Women): Modernism and the Art of Hesse, Krasner and O'Keeffe (1996). Her project at the Getty, titled "Mother Stones": The Sculptural Imaginary in Britain, ca. 1930, focuses on notions and representations of "motherhood" in British modernist culture and on more general questions of reproduction and originality.

Herta F. Wolf is professor of history and theory of photography, Universität Essen. She has published extensively on the history of photography and is currently interested in the epistemological relationship between the introduction of photography and models of knowledge acquisition. At the Research Institute she will focus on her project Poor Copy and Model Image: The Organization of Knowledge in the Photographic Age.

Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Fellows

September 2000-June 2002

S. M. Can Bilsel is a Ph.D. candidate in history and theory of architecture at Princeton University. At the Research Institute he will be completing his doctoral dissertation titled "Archaeological Reconstruction: The Original and Its Doubles (Pergamon Museum, 1905-1930)." His work studies the history of architectural reconstructions and their claims to authenticity in light of their modern displacement into the museum.

Kajri Jain is a postdoctoral research fellow at the department of anthropology, Macquarie University, Sydney. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Sydney in 1999 with a dissertation titled "Gods in the Bazaar: The Commercial, Sacred and Libidinal Economies of Indian "Calendar Art." While in residence at the Getty, she will revise her dissertation for publication and expand the theoretical framework of her research particularly as it pertains to the aesthetics of representation and issues of originality, authenticity, and circulation of images.

Michael Lobel received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1999 with a dissertation entitled "Image Duplicator: Roy Lichtenstein and the Emergence of Pop Art." He is currently expanding his dissertation into a book and pursuing further research on the work of artists concerned with the relation between mechanical reproduction and visual perception, technology, subjectivity, and desire.

Maria Hsiuya Loh is a doctoral candidate at the department of history of art, University of Toronto. Her dissertation project is titled "The Negotiation of Venetian Old Master Style & the Economy of Wit in Seventeenth-Century Europe." Her research explores issues of stylistic appropriation in 17th-century painting and investigates the history of collecting and the development of early modern taxonomies of art.

Lisa Pon received her Ph.D. in History of Art from Harvard University in 1999. At the Getty, she will expand her dissertation titled "Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Drawn, Painted and Printed Images in the Early Cinquecento," and investigate 16th- and 19th-century technologies to reproduce images and religious printing in early modern Italy. Her project is titled Printing Pictures/Photographing Prints: Art and Reproduction in Sixteenth-Century Italy and Nineteenth-Century France. September 2000-June 2001.

Alastair Wright is Assistant Professor at the Department of Humanities, Richmond University, London. During his residence at the Research Institute he will complete the preparation of his doctoral dissertation for publication and expand his research on the dialectic relationship between original and reproduction in modern painting in general and Matisse's work in particular. His project is titled Identity Trouble: Matisse and the Subject of Art History.

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The J. Paul Getty Trust is an international cultural and philanthropic institution devoted to the visual arts that features the Getty Conservation Institute, the Getty Foundation, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and the Getty Research Institute. The J. Paul Getty Trust and Getty programs serve a varied audience from two locations: the Getty Center in Los Angeles and the Getty Villa in Malibu.

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The Getty Research Institute is an operating program of the J. Paul Getty Trust. It serves education in the broadest sense by increasing knowledge and understanding about art and its history through advanced research. The Research Institute provides intellectual leadership through its research, exhibition, and publication programs and provides service to a wide range of scholars worldwide through residencies, fellowships, online resources, and a Research Library. The Research Library - housed in the 201,000-square-foot Research Institute building designed by Richard Meier - is one of the largest art and architecture libraries in the world. The general library collections (secondary sources) include almost 900,000 volumes of books, periodicals, and auction catalogues encompassing the history of Western art and related fields in the humanities. The Research Library's special collections include rare books, artists' journals, sketchbooks, architectural drawings and models, photographs, and archival materials.